Rabu, 16 Mei 2018

makalah dan sertifikat semnas perteta diunand,2016



BIOGAS TECHNOLOGY APPLICATION AS ONE OF THE REALIZATION
OF KKN PPM INTEGRATED IN AGRICULTURAL DISTRICT Kanagarian
kasang Batang Anai Padang Pariaman
By I Ketut Budaraga*),Fridarti**)
*)Lecture Agriculture Fakulty  Ekasakti University, Email: ketut_budaraga@yahoo.com
**) Lecture Farm Fakulty Taman siswa  Universty, Email: Fridarti@yahoo.com

Abstract
Manufacture of biogas as a fuel substitute households in the face of fuel prices continue to rise and
reduces environmental pollution from cow manure waste and can help provide solutions to the issue of availability of fertilizer that can generate economic benefit, improve social welfare and improve the environment in Kanagarian Kasang Subdistrict Batang Anai, Padang Pariaman District of West
Sumatra Province. The formulation of the problem as follows: (1) How does the process of making
biogas? (2) What are the other benefits of biogas production on the environment? Devotion in the form of KKN-PPM aims (1) to provide additional knowledge to the public about the application of biogas technology, and (2) In order for the community to get the economic benefits of biogas production in the form of slug into organic fertilizers that are environmentally friendly and cheap. Deploy methods of preparation and debriefing activities range includes student recruitment, and socialization permits users to target communities KKN PPM program, equipment preparation, implementation and monitoring and evaluation activities. Activities already carried out training and practice of waste processing cow manure into biogas used as fuel by involving farmers farmer groups wonderful sakato 1 further utilization of waste biogas in the form of slug for organic fertilizer in rice plants that provide economic benefits and improve the welfare of local communities as well as environmentally friendly. Devotion performed during one month in the area Korong Tong Blau Kanagarian Kasang District of Batang Anai, Padang Pariaman District of West Sumatra Province. The method used in this devotion is a lecture and demonstration and experimentation (trial). The lecture method is a method of giving the introductory ordinance making biogas and deliver the benefits of using biogas, the method of demonstration is a direct method of biogas installations as well as the practice of making a direct application in the form of biogas waste slug to the rice crop. Their practice activities directly in the field will be more interesting for the public.
Keywords: biogas stove, slug, organic fertilizer, rice plant

I. INTRODUCTION
Activity Field Work Experience (CCN) is a field activity for students who take
the final part of the education program S-1. This program actually is mandatory for all
students, because the university believe that the program is able to encourage empathy
students, and can contribute to the completion of persoa-lan in the community. By
learning together with the community, will be a lot of new things encountered
students. The public will learn from the students and vice versa many students will
gain knowledge of the society. Interactions like these are expected to emerge and
make this program a program that is fun and has significant benefits for students
(Univer the capacity for / Institute / High School), the communities and stakeholders
or partners. For (University / Institute / High School), this unique learning activities
that will be well-documented in the report and will be a lecturer in the classroom
learning materials. This is an added value to the academic life on campus. Research based
community service get real shape in the activities of Real Work Lecture. This
program is also a tangible manifestation of the role of partners (industry / local
government) in helping to resolve the problems of society. Service learning activities
into the shape of a real contribution to the community college (Anonymous, 2013.
The growing need for life and an increase in the price of fuel oil (BBM) and
the decreasing availability of natural resources that are not renewable, it is necessary
to find an alternative way to replace the energy resources with renewable energy
resources. The energy needs in fact it is the energy required to produce and distribute
it evenly means the fulfillment of basic human needs (Susilaningsih, 2007).

Many forms of energy has been used by humans, such as coal, petroleum, and
natural gas are non-renewable fuels. In addition, other resources such as firewood is
still used, but the use of firewood has a limited amount with the reduction in the forest
as a source of timber. With the increasing number of people, especially those living in
rural areas, household energy needs is still an issue that needs to be addressed
(Susilaningsih, 2007).
Energy has a very big role and is very important and can not be released in
human life, especially, today almost all human activities is highly dependent on
energy. Various support tools such as lighting, motor, household appliances and
industrial machines can be used if there is energy. Basically the use of energy such as
solar energy, water energy, electrical energy, nuclear energy, oil and gas, and energy
minerals and coal, had been done long ago. The utilization of renewable energy is not
excessively can lead to a crisis and the problem of energy crisis. One of the symptoms
of the energy crisis that occurred lately that the scarcity of fuel oil (BBM) .This
material fuel such as kerosene, gasoline, diesel This is because the level of demand is
very high and is increasing every year. Meanwhile, petroleum and raw materials for
fuel amounted limited and takes millions of years for the formation process (Rinilaili,
2014).
Increased activity farm will certainly have a positive impact and negative. The
positive impact of increased farmer incomes, expansion of employment opportunities,
and increase food availability. However, if not managed properly will have disastrous
ling-kungan problems, namely in the form of solid waste, air and liquid, such as feces,
urine, food waste, and air. According to the UN Food and Agriculture Organization
(FAO) in 2006 the farm is a major contributor to greenhouse gases. It is estimated that
greenhouse gas emissions equivalent to 7,516 million metric tons of equivalent CO2
(CO2e) per year, or 18% of greenhouse gas emissions each year are caused by
livestock, cattle, sheep, goats, camels, horses, pigs, and poultry , This amount exceeds
the combined emissions from all transport in the world such as motorcycles, cars,
trucks, planes, and others which accounted for 13 percent of greenhouse gas or
electricity generation worldwide world who donate 11 percent of greenhouse gases
(sudaryono, 2012).
Various factors that cause global warming, global warming is generally an
event caused by the temperature increase resulting from an increase in greenhouse gas
emissions resulting from human activities daily. Greenhouse gases are gases in the air
are commonly mebyerap hot, so kebera-daannya can increase the temperature on
earth. CO2 gas produced from smoke pollution motor vehicle can be a barrier
reflection geothermal, and it caused the emergence of geothermal. The removal of
trees on a large scale by the perpetrators of illegal lumberjacks also cause problems
ling-kungan, because trees that play a role in absorbing CO2 and supply of fresh air is
now diminishing presence. Farming activities also include one of the largest
greenhouse gas approximately 18%, resulting gases consist of CO2 (9%) CH4 (37%)
gas N2O (65%) and NH3 (64%), These gases generated from livestock waste and
affect people's health (Suryani 2011).
Nagari Nagari kasang is one that is located in the district of Batang Anai,
Padang Pariaman District with an area of 37.76 km2. Geographically located in the
0011'5 Nagari Kasang - 30 30 'South latitude and 98036-100040' east longitude. The
distance from the central province of ± 25 km, and 65 km from the center of Padang
Pariaman and the distance from the District of Batang Anai ± 7 km. Natural resources
contained in Nagari Kasang include fertile agricultural land, irrigation adequate, clean
water that can be used for daily needs as well as the forests and the hills are broad
enough to produce oxygen and are also used as a plantation by local communities ,
The average community of farmers have domesticated cows, ie the farmers have 2
cows (Nagari kasang in figures, 2015). Problems experienced by the farming
community so far is not yet optimal use cattle dung, sometimes discarded in vain not
utilized, while farmers are still very high dependence on chemical fertilizers, and
sometimes difficult for farmers to obtain fertilizer when in need of fertilizer. On the
other hand the problems customs a society of farmers still meman-advantage of wood
in the forest for fuels such as cooking purposes. This activity is done because
kerosene is very expensive, and people not accustomed to using LPG, citing fears of
exploding. The existence of the above problems that need to look for solutions.
Through applied technology of making biogas from manure likely to be an
alternative solution to the problem of difficulty in obtaining kerosene fuel and an
increase in agricultural production integrated with livestock towards food security and
encourage improvement of the environment and solve the problem fertilizer needs of
farmers in Kanagarian Kasang District of Batang Anai District Padang Pariaman. One
of the applied technologies that are environmentally friendly, cost-effective and easy
to apply and is in accordance with the conditions at the moment is the manufacture of
biogas from manure or may also be a mixture of manure with plant materials that can
be in the form of farming or farm waste. Biogas power of an excellent fuel, no smoke
so the food remains clean, safe from the risk of explosion. Biogas is a gas that comes
from living things, in this case dealt from manure and crops. In this sat fuel
consumption of gas progressively decreases, it is because the longer the population is
increasing, so the need for fuel will also be more and more needed in human life.
Consumption of fossil fuels diminishing lead the men-find alternative fuels that can
replace fossil fuels. Moreover, people today are looking for renewable fuel sources
that can always be updated so that the fuel can still be produced continuously (Suryani
2011).
The utilization of renewable energy is not excessively can lead to an energy
crisis. One of the energy crisis of late is the scarcity of fuel oil (BBM), such as
kerosene, gasoline, diesel and so on. Kelang-kaan energy not only in Indonesia but
also in other countries, it is not directly impacted the country's economy, particularly
for poor and developing countries, including Indonesia. The rising price of oil news
for household needs increasingly disturbing the public. Besides expensive, fuel is also
increasingly rare in the market. Efforts to overcome these encouraging thinking will
need to search alternative energy sources that fuel needs can be met without damaging
the environment (Sudaryono, 2012).
As a result of rising fuel prices, people's lives both in villages and cities. to be contimue

sertifikat dan makalah safe,2016

Antibacterial  Properties Of Liquid Smoke Of Various Materials With Different  Level Of Temperature Pyrolysis
I Ketut Budaraga*), Arnim**), Yetti Marlida**), Usman Bulanin***)
*) Agricultural Technology Department, Faculty of Agricultural Ekasakti University, Veteran In street 21th Padang 251163 Indonesia, email: ketut_budaraga@yahoo.com/Budaraga 1968@gmail.com
**) Animal Production Department, Faculty of Animal Husbandry Andalas University Limau Manis street Padang City
***) Fisheries Cultivation Department, Faculty of Fisheries Bung Hatta University, Sumatera street Padang city
Email: usman bulanin@yahoo.com


AbstractThis study aims to determine the nature of the toxicity of liquid smoke obtained from pyrolysis of various raw materials with different temperature levels to Escerichia Coli. This study was conducted experimentally using a completely randomized factorial design 3 x 4 x 7 with three replications so that there are 252 experimental units. A factor is the type of raw material comprising coconut husk, coconut shell and cinnamon, factors such as temperature and temperature levels of 100 ± 10 ° C; 200 ± 10 ° C; 300 ± 10 ° C; and 400 ± 10 ° C and C factors there are seven (7) the level of concentration of 0 ppm, 1 ppm 10 ppm, 100 ppm, 500 ppm, 1000 ppm and 1500 ppm .. The parameters observed antibacterial properties such as the diameter of the inhibition (DDH) Escherichia coli. The results showed a significant interaction (P <0.05) between using type of raw material liquid smoke with pyrolysis temperature levels and differences in the concentration of liquid smoke to the antibacterial properties such as Diameter Inhibitory Power (DDH) Escherichia coli. Figures Inhibitory Power Diameter (DDH) Escherichia coli highest liquid smoke treatment material contained in cinnamon level pyrolysis temperature of 400±10°C at a concentration of 1500 ppb of demonstrating inhibition of diameter (22.29 mm / ppb) compared to the other treatment combinations , Based on these results it can be concluded that the use of cinnamon to the level of temperature pyrolysis of 400 ± 10 ° C at a concentration of 1500 ppb are better used as an antibacterial than the combined treatment of raw materials coconut husk and coconut shell, temperature pyrolysis another and concentration of liquid smoke is lower.

Keywordstype of raw material, temperature, liquid smoke, the concentration, the nature antibakterial
__________________________________________________________________________________



Introduction
Antibacterial agent is a compound that can kill or inhibit the growth of microorganisms. An antibacterial substance that has an activity of inhibiting (bacteriostatic) or kill the microbes (bakteriosida), particularly harmful microbes humans [1]. Microbes are microscopic organisms which among others consists of bacteria, fungi and viruses [2]. In interaction with humans, there are microbes that are harmful. Examples of pathogenic bacteria Escherichia coli and coliform group of bacteria can cause gastrointestinal disease [2].
One of the efforts to fight the microbe is to use a liquid smoke that has antagonist properties (antimicrobial) as a bully or inhibiting the metabolism of other microbes. Liquid smoke that has antimicrobial capabilities can produce antimicrobial compounds. Antimicrobial compounds produced by liquid smoke such as phenols, carbonyls are compounds that are inhibiting the growth of bacteria. For self-defense and competition with other microbes in getting nutrition, habitat, oxygen, light and others. The antimicrobial compounds can be classified as an antibacterial or antifungal [3].
Based on the research results [4] that the liquid smoke coconut shell bakeries capable of inhibiting the growth of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. [5]  also conducted research Galam wood vinegar, acacia and rubber for food products as a preservative fish, globe fish and catfish with a concentration of 10% can preserve fish for two months.
Escherichia coli is one of the main species of gram-negative bacteria. Generally can cause various diseases when it goes into other organs or tissues. Escherichia coli bacteria can cause pneumonia, endocarditis, an infection of the wounds and abscesses in various organs. Rod-shaped bacteria is the main occupant of organisms in the colon, komensalisme live in the human body and is thought to play a role in the formation of vitamin K is important for blood clotting [6].
All kinds of wood distillate containing compounds that can be extracted as phenol derivatives which can inhibit the growth of microbes. Liquid smoke of wood used as a preservative because of the similarity of chemical components contained in the distillate timber certain kinds of preservatives, where that act as preservatives is phenol and its derivatives. Efforts to provide added value from waste crop plantations that are still yet to receive optimal treatment such as coconut husk, coconut shell and cinnamon in West Sumatra is necessary to do research on the antibacterial properties of liquid smoke. The purpose of this study to determine the antibacterial properties of liquid smoke from a combined treatment of raw materials such as coconut husk, coconut shell and cinnamon with pyrolysis temperature and concentration of different liquid smoke to the bacterium Escherichia coli.
Material and Method
Material and Equipment. Raw material such coconut fibre waste, coconut shell come from Pasar Raya Padang and cinnamon with its bark condition taken in dry condition is acquired from cinnamon farmer in Tanah Datar. Chemical material that is used to analysis between 0,1 N NaOH, distilled water, phenolphthalein, Na2CO3, Folin Ciocalteu this, DMSO, petri dish for nutrients. To analysis smoke component, it uses methanol, helium gas, Whatman No. 42 filter paper. Equipment that is used in pyrolysis consists of one set laboratory scale liquid smoke maker that consists of stainless steel kiln with 3 kg capacity, condenser unit 14 meter length, cooling pipe by using glass pipe, distillate bottle (container liquid smoke), gas stove, water pump, water drum, water hose for condenser cooler, ball valve, PVC pipe, pole, clamp, thermometer, stopwatch, measuring cup, 10 ml microliters syringe, luer key syringe with diameter 25 mM from 0,45 mm PVDF, suram lock syringe 10 ml vial B x 40 mm and GC MS. and other equipments that are used, such as 1 (one) aquarium set, weights, thermos bottle, patrialis cup, electric stove, filter paper, oven, distillation equipment, analytic scales, oven, porcelain bowl, desiccator, filter, pH meter, 125 ml Erlenmeyer and 500 ml glass, filter paper, Soxhlet, tube, centrifuge tube, micro buret, pipette, volumetric flask pipette 250 ml, centrifuge, spectrophotometer, pycnometer
Research Method
Tools and instruments used in this study include tools laboratory glassware, test tube rack, aluminum foil, paper filter evaporator, vortex, desiccator, hot plate, aerator, oven. analytical scales, blenders, label paper, rulers, pencils, aluminum foil, plastic, filter paper, cotton, erlenmeyer flask, becker glass, measuring cups, funnels, test tubes, rod stirrer, pipette, glass bottles, bottle weighing, measuring cups , oven, glassware commonly used in the microbiology laboratory, a set of rotary vacuum evaporator, volume pipettes, micro-pipettes, ose, tweezers, perforator, autoclaves, and scales. as well as one (1) set of tools maker laboratory-scale liquid smoke [7].
Materials and chemical reagents used in this study is a waste coconut husks, coconut shells obtained from Pasar Raya Padang and cinnamon already taken the outer skin is obtained from the farmers cinnamon in Tanah Datar. distilled water, methanol, Nutrient Agar (NA) Nutrient Broth (NB), Escherichia coli ATCC 11778, KCl, milk, sugar and NaCl solution.

Implementation Research
The stages of the implementation of this study consisted of three phases:

1.Assembling means of pyrolysis liquid smoke
Figure 1.Liquid smoke device of a laboratory scale
 
            Circuit extraction tool liquid smoke made at laboratory scale refers to the results of research and the characteristics of liquid smoke [7]. In this study using the tool maker of liquid smoke which comprises one unit of equipment condenser complete with water in the form of a drum capacity of 100 liters equipped with a water pump to help circulate cooling water along the 14 meter equipped with a hose for water circulation, place a container of liquid smoke in the form of a tube Erlenmeyer capacity of 500 ml amounted to 5 pieces, stainless stell kiln capacity of 3 kg and a stove burner LPG fueled at the end of the pipe as well as pyrolysis include a vacuum pump to draw the smoke of burning in order to obtain a liquid smoke as shown in Figure 1below.

2. The process of pyrolysis (manufacture) of liquid smoke
Research on the manufacture of liquid smoke by means of pyrolysis refers to the above research activities to provide input to redesign the device of liquid smoke laboratory scale. After the tool maker of liquid smoke strung well then continued with producing liquid smoke. This process starts from raw material preparation providing coconut fiber, coconut shell and cinnamon dry with each weighing about 40 kg with a moisture content ranging from 4-10%, cleaned of dirt. Raw materials in order to further cut its small size with uniform size ± 4-9 cm2. Next activities include the raw materials into pyrolysis reactor during the five (5) hours with each weighing 3 kg sample at a temperature of 100 ± 10 ° C; 200 ± 10 ° C; 300 ± 10 ° C; 400 ± 10 ° C. using fuel burner LPG stove. The water pump is used to drain water from the water source to the condenser. Burner and water pump switched on simultaneously. Container distillate (liquid smoke) accommodated using glass bottles. Bemeasured temperature using a thermometer and measurements were performed every ½ hour measured at several places, namely in pirolisator, container distillates, as well as water resources, as well as the inlet and outlet of the condenser. After 5 hours, will obtain three fractions, namely fraction of the solid form of carbon, in the form of tar heavy fraction and light fraction in the form of smoke and gas methan. Next light fraction is passed kepipa condensation in order to obtain a liquid smoke while methane remained the gas and condensed. Liquid smoke were then allowed to stand for one week, a new analysis. The purpose of the deposition during 1 (one) week to precipitate impurities that exist in liquid smoke. After 1 (one) week silenced liquid smoke is then performed antibacterial tests.

3.Uji antibacterial using Kirby-Bauer disc [8]; [9]. includes the following stages:

a. Sterilization Equipment and Materials
Sterilization is done in a manner appropriate to each tool. The tools will be washed and sterilized before dikerigkan first. Test tubes, beakers, erlenmeyer covered her mouth with cotton. Furthermore, in autoklap sterilized at a temperature of 121oC. for 15 minutes. Penset, flumberose needle sterilized with the Bunsen flame. Microbiological test work performed aseptically in a laminar air flow (LAF) previously sterilized with UV light and sprayed with 70% alcohol. Sterilization is done 2 hours before work and after work therein.

b. Making Media growth
 -Nutrient Agar (NA). Weighed 23 grams NA (nutrient agar) and diluted with 1 liter of distilled water and heated until everything was dissolved then sterilized in an autoclave at 121 ° C for 15 min at a pressure of 1 atm [10]. The composition of nutrient agar (g / l): meat extracts 1%, peptone 1%, and that 1.5% [11]. 
- Nutrient Broth (NB). Weighed 8 grams of NB and diluted with 1 liter of distilled water and heated until everything was dissolved then inserted into erlenmeyer, then sterilized in an autoclave at 121°C for 15 min at a pressure of 1 atm [12].The composition of nutrient broth (g / l): lab LEMCO powder 1%, 2% yeast extract, peptone 5% and 5% NaCl.

c. Making test solution.
In determining the highest activity of liquid smoke is the result of a combination treatment of the raw material (coconut fiber, coconut shell and cinnamon) with temperature pyrolysis different (temperature of 100 ± 10 ° C; 200±10°C; 300±10°C; and 400±10°C) at a concentration of smoke cait that different (0 ppm, 1 ppm 10 ppm, 100 ppm, 500 ppm, 1000 ppm and 1500 ppm.

d. Breeding Bacteria Test.
Test bacteria inoculated into 5 ml of nutrient agar slant using a sterile needle ose by way of scraping Escerichia Coli bacteria. ATCC 11778 at the end of the needle ose media to slant nutrient agar, then incubated at 37 ° C subs 18-24 hours.

e.   Preparation of the bacterial suspension.
Pure bacterial culture results from nurtrient agar (NA) tilted after inoculated aged 18-24 hours at 37 ° C was inoculated 1 Ose in 10 ml. Nutrient Broth (NB) and subsequently incubated at 37 ° C for 18-24 hours. After that the turbidity synchronized with a solution of 0.5 Me. Farland or proportional to the number of bacteria 1 x 108 CFU / ml (CFU: Colony Forming Unit) or 250-300 colonies on solid media. Furthermore, to obtain bacterial suspension containing 106 CFU / ml, is by taking 1 ml (from the tube containing 108 CFU / ml) was mixed with 9 ml of sterile 0.9% NaCl. Then we will get a bacterial suspension with a density of 107 CFU / ml. followed again by taking 1 ml again (from the tube containing 107 CFU / ml) to be mixed with 9 ml of sodium broth to obtain a suspension with a density of 106 CFU / ml [13]; [14]; [15].

f.    Identification bacteria with gram stain
A total of one loop of bacteria on nutrient agar slant is fixed on a clean microscope slide. Spread of bacteria is added with gentian violet in a state of excess, then allowed one minute. Excess dye and then disposed of the slide is rinsed with running water. Mixture dried over fire spritus. After drying excess Lugol preparations added to the surface and allowed to stand for 1 minute. After 1 minute preparations in the rinse with water mengalir.Preparat rinsed with 90% alcohol until all the dye washed out and then washed with running water. Mixture flame dried over rubbing alcohol. After drying excess safranin preparations added to the surface and allowed to stand for 45 seconds. Mixture washed with water and dried. Mixture added 1 drop of immersion oil and observed using Olympus CX21 microscope with magnification of 100 times [16];[17].

g.   Testing for antibacterial activity by disc diffusion method.
Antibacterial activity test using methods that with the discs.Silender discs used sterile diameter of 7 mm. NA sterile liquid medium that is poured aseptically 20 ml in 9 cm diameter petri dish sterile until uniform, then allowed to freeze. Furthermore, the suspension of bacteria E Coli which has been standardized turbidity, dipped sterile cotton stick, wait a minute so that the liquid to seep into the cotton. Then stick lifted and squeezed by emphasizing a stick on the inner tube wall while playing around. Scratched scratched cotton-sticks on the surface of media NA until the entire surface of the media closely covered with scratches. Media NA left for 5-15 minutes so that suspense bacteria seep into the agar. Then a solution of 100 ml of liquid smoke is used with a concentration of 0 ppm, 1 ppm, 10 ppm, 100 ppm, 500 ppm, 1000 ppm and 1500 ppm silender dropped on the discs. Incubated at 37°C for 18-24 hours, after incubated antibacterial happens is determined by measuring the diameter of inhibitory regions (DDH) growth using calipers. [18]; [13];[19].

Experimental design
The study was conducted using a completely randomized design (CRD) factorial 3 x 4 x 7 with 3 replicates in order to obtain 252 experimental units. A factor is the type of raw material comprising coconut husk, coconut shell and cinnamon, factor B level pyrolysis temperature of 100 ± 10 ° C; 200 ± 10 ° C; 300 ± 10 ° C; and 400 ± 10 ° C and factor C level liquid smoke concentration is 0 ppb, 1 ppb, 10 ppb, 100 ppb, 500 ppb, 1000 ppb and 1500 ppb. Parameters measured were measuring the diameter of the wells formed by the treatment given. Furthermore, the data were analyzed by the analysts of variance 5%, significantly different if followed by Tukey's test 5% [20].

RESULT AND DISCUSSION

Antimicrobial properties of Liquid Smoke
a. Effect of combination treatment with the temperature differences in raw materials pyrolysis against DDH Escerichia Coli
Results of analysis of variance showed that there is interaction on the combination treatment differences in raw material liquid smoke with a temperature pyrolysis different to the value of antimicrobial liquid smoke (P <0.05), the combination treatment of the difference in temperature pyrolysis of different concentrations and combinations of differences in raw materials, the temperature pyrolysis and different concentrations of liquid smoke also shows the interaction or significant effect.
The method chosen in the test liquid smoke antibacterial activity of differences in raw materials at different pyrolysis temperatures are agar diffusion method. Basic selection because this method is quick, easy and simple process. In the determination of antibacterial activity, the formation of inhibition zone (clear zone) around the paper disc after the first in dip added to the test solution proves that make compound has antibacterial activity. Diameter zone of inhibition is an indication of bacterial sensitivity testing, the greater the inhibition zone then it has antibacterial activity of antibacterial increasingly good. Result analysis of variance on the antimicrobial properties (diameter inhibition) of liquid smoke to Escerichia Coli bacteria.
Observations average diameter of inhibition (DDH) in the treatment of microbial Escerichia Coli treatment combined with differences in raw materials pyrolysis temperature is presented in Table 1.
TABLE 1
Observations average DDH (mm / ppb) Escerichia Coli. based treatment differences in raw materials to the pyrolysis temperature.
Factor
temperature pyrolysis (oC) (T)
Mean

(T)
Interaktion
and level
100 (T1)
200
(T2)
300 (T3)
400
(T4)
(T x B)
Coconut fiber (B1)
2.82±0.23 c
7.93± 1.08 abc
10.37 ± 1.1 ab
5.25 ± 1.23 bc
6.59± 1.13 a
-0.45
Coconut Shell (B2)
5.94 ± 1.03 bc
8.24 ± 1.22 abc
9.38 ± 1.12 abc
3.06 ± 0.91 c
6.66± 1.13 a
2.02
Cinnamon (B3)
7.16 ± 1.24 bc
14.18 ± 0.55 a
10.20 ± 1.18 ab
6.95 ± 1.29 bc
9.62± 1.20 b
2.03
Mean Raw Materials (B)
5.31± 1.02 a
10.12± 1.09 a
9.99± 1.03 b
5.09± 0.91 b
5.31

Interaktion
(B xT)
-0.81
-3.96
-0.55
-2.59


Description:             Different superscript letters in columns averaging showed significant difference (P <0.05)
Based on Table 1 shows the value of positive interaction on the combination treatment of the type of raw material coconut shell and cinnamon with different pyrolysis temperature (line), while the combined treatment of the raw material coco different pyrolysis temperature has a value of negative interactions. Furthermore, the combination of pyrolysis temperature treatment with different types of raw materials (columns) indicates the value of negative interactions. Values of positive interaction means that both factors influence both the raw materials and the concentration of liquid smoke to respond jointly to the increase in the value of the diameter of the inhibition of E. coli, compared to the treatment of each factor. Furthermore, the value of a negative interaction means on both factors give the opposite response or responses given those two factors on the value of the diameter of the inhibition Escerichia Coli lower than the performance on each factor.
Table 1 shows the diameter of the inhibition of bacterial Escerichia Coli greatest interaction of treatment differences in raw materials with the temperature pyrolysis contained in the raw material cinnamon with temperature pyrolysis of 200 ± 10 ° C of 14.176 mm/ppb was not significantly different treatment combinations cinnamon with a temperature pyrolysis of 300 ± 10oC and significantly different with a combination of other treatments, while the smallest diameter of the inhibition of artifacts in the raw material at a temperature pyrolysis coco 100±10°C by 2.82 mm / ppb. The amount of inhibition in diameter cinnamon at 200oC allegedly contained many components in cinnamon that has the ability to be a powerful antimicrobial. According to [21], the criteria of the strength of antibacterial as follows: inhibition zone diameter of 5 mm or less categorized as weak, 5-10 mm zone of inhibition is average, 10-20 mm inhibition zone considered strong and inhibition zone 20 mm or more categorized very strong. Based on these criteria, the antibacterial power of the liquid smoke Escerichia Coli bacteria in raw material cinnamon with pyrolysis temperature of 200±10° C of 14.176 mm / ppb relatively strong.
The regression equation shows the average DDH Escerichia Coli in liquid smoke cinnamon is Y = -0,535x + 10.9; r2 = 0.0401, coconut shell Y = 0,973x + 4:16; r2 = 0.1475, coco Y = -0,821x +8.77; r2 = 0.1457 at four different pyrolysis temperature. The third regression equation showing the relationship between the type of raw material by pyrolysis temperature is very weak with r2 respectively 0.1457 coco, coconut shells and coconut fiber 0.0401 0.1475. This illustrates that the type of raw material liquid smoke with different pyrolysis temperature does not relate so strongly to the diameter of the inhibition of Escerichia Coli bacteria. It allegedly caused by the content of phenol and carbonyl contained in the liquid smoke has not been able to play an optimal role in the process of inhibition against microbes. According to [22], the quantity of phenol in liquid smoke of wood varies greatly which is between 10-200 mg / kg. Some types of phenol which is normally present in the product asapan are guaiacol, and siringol. With the phenol compounds that can inhibit the growth of bacteria that can form a diameter of inhibition zone.
The greater the concentration of vinegar added to the greater diameter of the inhibition zone is formed. This is due to the liquid smoke-containing phenol compounds, carbonyl, aldehyde and acetic acid in liquid smoke acts as an antibacterial thus affecting the growth of test bacteria as indicated by the formation of a clear zone. Mechanism of action of antibacterial compounds in liquid smoke, for example phenols, aldehydes and acetic acid compounds against both bacterial growth inhibition test is to denaturation enzymes and damaging the cell membrane of the bacteria test, breaking the hydrogen bonds. The structure of the cell wall can be undermined by inhibiting formation or change it once formed [23].

b. Effect of combination treatment differences in raw materials with liquid smoke concentration against Bland Power Diameter (DDH) Escerichia Coli
Results of analysis of variance showed that there is interaction on the combination treatment differences in raw materials with different concentrations of liquid smoke. Observations average diameter of inhibition (DDH) in the treatment of microbial Escerichia Coli differences in raw materials combined treatment with liquid smoke concentration presented in Table 2.

TABLE 2.
Observations average DDH (mm / ppb) Escerichia Coli based treatment differences in raw materials with the concentration of liquid smoke.
Factor
Concentration of Liquid Smoke (%) (K)
Mean (K)
Interaktion
And  level
0 ppm (K0)
1 ppm (K1)
10 ppm (K2)
100 ppm (K3)
500 ppm (K4)
1000 ppm (K5)
1500 ppm (K6)
B*K
Coco-nut fiber(B1)
0.83±0.04 abc
0.87± 0.05 h
3.80±
1.31  h
6.04±1.43 fgh
6.87±
1.2 efgh
9.97±
1.48 efgh
17.75±
2.39 def
2.89± 0.97 a
-6.82
Coconut Shell (B2)
0.83± 0.04 ab
0.91± 0.05 gh
3.21±
1.15 fgh
5.69± 1.98 gh
8.46±
1.6 gh
8.92±
1.84 gh
18.58±
1.23 def
2.66± 1.26 a
-7.10
Cinnamon (B3)
3.29± 1.37
3.49± 1.69 gh
6.45±
1.89 gh
6.65±
1.05 efgh
12.66±
1.74 efgh
13.6±
1.83 cde
20.50±
2.1 bcd
4.97± 1.03 b
-7.43
Mean Raw Material (B)
1.65± 1.88 a
1.76± 1.82 ab
4.49±
1.49 ab
6.13± 1.35 b
9.34± 1.79 c
10.83±
1.04 d
18.95±
1.56 e
        3.51

Interaktion
(K*B)
-1.64
-1.72
-2.16
-0.64
-2.80
-3.13
-1.274

Description: Different superscript letters in columns averaging showed significant difference (P <0.05)

Table 2 shows the value of negative interactions both on a combination treatment of different types of raw materials with different concentrations of liquid smoke (rows) and on (column) a combination of liquid smoke concentration treatments with different types of raw materials. If the mean value of negative interactions on both factors give the opposite response or responses given those two factors on the value of the diameter of the inhibition (DDH) Escerichia Coli lower than the performance on each factor.
Table 1 shows the diameter of the inhibition of bacterial Escerichia Coli largest in the combination treatment of differences in raw materials with the temperature pyrolysis contained in the raw material cinnamon with the concentration of liquid smoke 1 500 ppb of 20,500 mm / ppb was not significantly different treatment combinations cinnamon with a concentration of 1000 ppb and significantly different with the combination of other treatments, while the smallest diameter of inhibition found in coconut coir raw materials at a concentration of liquid smoke 0 ppb. The amount of inhibition in diameter cinnamon 1000 ppm allegedly contained many components in cinnamon that has the ability to be a powerful antimicrobial. On the raw material coco with a concentration of 0 ppm (no liquid smoke) figures diameter low power resistor being unable to inhibit bacterial growth Escerichia Coli, most likely because of the composition of the cell wall of Gram-negative bacteria complex. Most of Gram-negative bacteria have a complex on the cell wall lipopolysaccharide. These substances are endotoxins, the structure of endotoxin lipopolysaccharide in the cell wall, namely, polysaccharide-O-specific which is the antigen somatic of colonies fine induce specific immunity, core polysaccharide general (antigen colony rough) that induces some resistance is not specific to sepsis Gram negative, lipid A with KDO (2-keto-acid-3-deoxy-octanoate), which is responsible for the primary poisoning [1].
The results show that liquid smoke from the raw materials with different pyrolysis temperature has the ability to inhibit the growth of bacteria Escerichia Coli. This is evident from the clear zone formed around the paper disc soaked liquid keasap. The higher the concentration of smoke, the inhibition zone formed increases. Many factors cause the inhibitory zone is not evenly rounded, one factor is the media seeding in a Petri dish, the bacteria population is growing not meeting the one part while the other section of the population is growing tight. This is because, at the time of manufacture seeding layer of bacteria, bacterial spread unevenly. Consequently, discs that contain antibacterial substances that are placed on the bacteria population is not meeting will form a larger zone of inhibition than paper disc placed at the meeting that the bacteria population.
Furthermore, according to [21], the criteria of the strength of antibacterial as follows: inhibition zone diameter of 5 mm or less categorized as weak, 5-10 mm zone of inhibition is average, 10-20 mm inhibition zone considered strong and inhibition zone 20 mm or more categorized as very strong. Based on these criteria, the antibacterial power of the liquid smoke Escerichia Coli bacteria in raw material cinnamon with a concentration of 1000 ppm as very strong.
The regression equation on the raw material coco y = 2.6623x-3.9892; r² = 0.8609,  coconut shelly = 2.5732x-3.7009; r² = 0.8827 and  cinnamon y = 2.7873x - 1,626; r² = 0.9072 at different concentrations of liquid smoke. Based on the regression equation showing the relationship between the type of raw material by the concentration of liquid smoke has a strong relationship to the diameter of the inhibition (DDH) Escerichia Coli with r2 respectively 0.8609, 0.8827 and 0.9072. Relations raw materials cinnamon with different concentrations of liquid smoke showed the closest correlation of 0.9072 means that 90.70% inhibition diameter (DDH) Escerichia Coli influenced by raw material relationship with the concentration of liquid smoke, while the rest influenced by other factors. The strong relationship cinnamon raw materials with different concentrations allegedly caused many components found in cinnamon liquid smoke so that shows quite strong correlation to its antibacterial properties.
c.  The combined effect of pyrolysis temperature difference treatment with liquid smoke concentration against DDH Escerichia Coli
 Results of analysis of variance showed that there is interaction on a combination of pyrolysis temperature difference treatment with different concentrations of liquid smoke (P <0.05). Observations average diameter of inhibition (DDH)Escerichia Coli Coli microbes in the combination treatment of the pyrolysis temperature difference treatment with liquid smoke concentration can be presented in Table 3 below:

TABLE 3
Observations average DDH (mm / ppb) Escerichia Coli based pyrolysis temperature difference treatment with liquid smoke concentration.
Factor
Temperature pyrolysis (oC) (T)
Mean (T)
Interaktion
and level
100 (T1)
200(T2)
300 (T3)
400(T4)
(T*K)
0 ppm (K0)
0.7974±0.04 g
4.0674±1.86 fg
0.8531±0.02 g
0.8821±0.01 g
1.65± 1.88 a
0.659
1 ppm (K1)
0.8369±0.02 g
4.3612±1.18 fg
0.9445±0.02 g
0.8937±0.02 g
1.761.49 ab
0.715
10 ppm (K2)
0.8917±0.06 g
5.1453±1,3 fg
11.018±1.2 cde
0.9007±0.02 g
4.491.49 ab
-0.202
100 ppm(K3)
0.9195±0.08 g
11.596±1.65 cde
11.08±0.85 cde
0.9278±0.03 g
6.13± 1.79 c
0.946
500 ppm(K4)
8.7409±6.07 def
12.879±0.98 cde
11.654±1.12 cde
4.0677±1.69 fg
9.34± 1.79 c
3.511
1000 ppm(K5)
9.1828±1.31 def
13.074±1.55 cd
13.219±1.12 cd
7.854±1.26 ef
10.83± 1.04 d
2.096
1500 ppm(K6)
15.785±1.87 bc
19.69±1.44 ab
21.151±1.02  a
19.491±1.71 ab
19.03± 1.56 e
0.922
Mean (K)
5.31± 1.02 a
10.12± 1.09 a
9.99± 1.03 b
5.00± 0.91 b
7.60

Interaktion (K*T)
6.62
6.14
7.68
6.94
6.84

Description: Different superscript letters in columns averaging showed significant difference (P <0.05)

Based on Table 3 shows the value of positive interaction in the combined treatment of liquid smoke concentration of 0 ppm. 1 ppm, 100 ppm, 500 ppm, 1000 ppm and 1500 ppm (rows) with different pyrolysis temperature, then combined treatment of liquid smoke concentration of 10 ppm showed a negative interaction. In treatment (column) with different temperature pyrolysis liquid smoke concentration showed a positive interaction. If the value of a negative interaction means on both factors provide a response in the opposite or the responses given those two factors on the value of the diameter of the inhibition (DDH) Escerichia Coli lower than the performance on each factor, while the value of positive interaction means both treatment factors together a response increases the value of Inhibitory Power Diameter (DDH) Escerichia Coli.
In Table 3 shows the diameter of the inhibition of bacterial Escerichia Coli largest in the combination treatment concentration of liquid smoke with a temperature pyrolysis present in concentrations of liquid smoke 1 500 ppb at a temperature pyrolysis of 300 ± 10 ° C of 21.151 mm / ppb was not significantly different from the combination of the concentration of liquid smoke 1 500 ppb at a temperature pyrolysis of 200 ± 10 ° C, 400 ± 10 ° C and significantly different with the combination of other treatments, while the smallest diameter of inhibition contained in the liquid smoke concentration of 0 ppm (no liquid smoke) on the pyrolysis temperature of 100 ± 10 ° C of 0.797 ml / ppb. The size of the diameter of inhibition at concentrations of 1500 ppb suspected many of the components contained in the liquid smoke that has the ability to be a powerful antimicrobial. The antimicrobial activity of liquid smoke is caused by phenol and acid components. [24] suggested that liquid smoke contains acid and its derivatives (formate, acetate, butyrate, propionate, and methyl ester), alcohol (methyl, ethyl, propyl, alkyl, and isobutyl alcohol), aldehydes (formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, furfural and methyl furfural), hydrocarbons (Silene, kumene, and simene), ketones (acetone, methyl ethyl ketone, methyl propyl ketone, and ethyl propyl ketone), phenol, pyridine, and methyl pyridine. Phenols and acids are compounds that act as antimicrobial [25]; [26]; [27]; [28]; [29]; [30]; [31]; [32]. Phenol and derivatives there of may be bacteriostatic or bactericidal because it is able to inactivate enzymes essential, coagulation SH group and the NH group of proteins [33].
[34] explains that the mechanism of antimicrobial activity of phenol and its derivatives include reaction with cell membranes that causes increased permeability of cell membranes and results in loss of cell contents, inactivation of essential enzymes and the destruction or inactivation of functional genetic material. The higher the concentration of phenol will further precipitate the proteins cells, conversely the lower the concentration will further inhibit the enzymes essential to effectively ..
         The regression equation at the pyrolysis temperature of 100oC 2.6041x y=-5.4139; r² =0.6634, pyrolysis temperature of 200oC y = 2.4823x - 4.6214; r² = 0.8, pyrolysis temperature of 300oC y = 2.5724x - 0.1735; r² = 0.9054; and the pyrolysis temperature of 400oC y = 3.0742x - 2.3084; r² = 0.8667 at different concentrations of liquid smoke. The regression equation indicates that the relationship between the pyrolysis temperature of the liquid smoke concentrations have a relationship rather strong to strong inhibition of the diameter (DDH) Escerichia Coli with R2 respectively 0.6634, 0.8, 0.9054 and 0.8667. Relations pyrolysis temperature of 200 ± 10 °C with different concentrations of liquid smoke showed the closest correlation of 0.9054 means that 90.54 percent of the diameter of the inhibition (DDH) Escerichia Coli pyrolysis temperature is influenced by the relationship with the concentration of liquid smoke while the rest influenced by other factors. The strong relationship pyrolysis temperature with different concentrations asapcair allegedly caused by many chemical components that can be issued when the pyrolysis so that shows quite strong correlation to its antibacterial properties.

d. Effect of combination treatment differences in raw materials, pyrolysis temperature and concentration of liquid smoke to DDH Escerichia Coli
Results of analysis of variance showed that there is interaction on the combination treatment differences in raw materials, pyrolysis temperature and the concentration difference also shows the interaction of liquid smoke or a significant effect (P <0.05). Observations average diameter of inhibition (DDH) in microbial Escerichia Coli in combination treatment differences in raw material, pyrolysis temperature with liquid smoke concentrations presented in Table 4



TABLE 4.
Observations average DDH (mm / ppb) Escerichia Coli based on the treatment of raw materials, the temperature pyrolysis with liquid smoke concentration
Factor
Temperature
Konsentration liquid smoke (ppm) (K)
Mean
Interaktion
0  (K0)
1 (K1)
10  (K2)
100  (K3)
500 (K4)
1000 (K5)
1500 (K6)
temperature /Raw
(T*B)
and level
Pyrolysis (oC) (T)
(T*B)
100(T1)
0.77±0.02 q
0.80±
0.04 q
0.82±
0.02 q
0.81±
0.03 q
0.9=3±
0.03 q
0.99±
0.0002 q
14.7±
0.03 efg
2.82± 1.96 c
-3.53
Coconut fiber
200(T2)
0.81±
0.04 q
0.88±
0.02 q
0.9±
0.01 q
10.26±
0.02 op
12.78±
0.02 ijk
13.45±
0.02 hij
16.4±
0.03 cd
7.93± 1.5 abc
-8.21
(B1)
300(T3)
0.84±
0.03 q
0.94±
0.03 q
12.6±
0.05jk
12.12±
0.05 kl
12.83±
0.03ijk
13.43±
0.03 hij
19.823±
0.03 b
10.4± 1.63 ab
-7.86

400(T4)
0.89±
0.05 q
0.87±
0.03 q
0.88±
0.03 q
0.963±
0.002 q
0.99±
0.03 q
12.08±
0.03 kl
20.067±
0.03 b
5.2± 1.35 bc
-7.06
Mean  (B1)
0.82±
0.04 abc
0.87± 0.05 h
3.80±
 5.31  h
6.04±
1.43 fgh
6.88±
6.2 efgh
9.98±
5.48 efgh
17.7±
2.39 def
6.592
0.29
Interaktion  (B1*T)
-0.063
-0.042
-1.984
-0.387
-0.051
-5.543
-3.236
-1.62
Coconut
100(T1)
0.76±
0.02 q
0.84±
0.01 q
0.93±
0.02 q
0.98±
0.00 q
11.79±
0.03 klmn
11.81±
0.03 klmn
15.36±
2.883 de
5.9 ±
1.2 bc
-7.48
Shell
200(T2)
0.85±
0.02 q
0.93±
0.03 q
0.94±
0.02 q
10.75±
0.003 nop
10.27±
0.06 op
11.13±
0.03 lmnop
21.3±
0.05 a
8.24 ±
1.34 abc
-8.56
(B2)
300(T3)
0.84±
0.03 q
0.97±
0.03 q
10.09±
0.02 p
10.17±
0.03 p
0.89±
0.003 q
11.83±
0.05 klmn
21.58±
0.03 q
9.38 ±
1.71 abc
-6.44

400(T4)
0.86±
0.03 q
0.89±
0.01 q
0.89±
0.03 q
0.88±
0.03 q
11.81±
0.03 q
0.89±
0.002 q
16.12±
1.2 d
3.06±
1.46 c
-5.45
Mean (B2)
0.83±
 0.04 ab
0.91± 0.05 gh
3.21±
 1.15 fgh
5.69±
1.98 gh
8.46±
 1.6 gh
8.91±
1.84 gh
18.58±
1.23 def
6.657
0.75
Interaktion  (B2*T)
-0.05
-0.03
-1.51
1.84
-0.01
5.34
-0.42
0.737
Cinnnamon
100(T1)
0.86±
0.01 q
0.86±
0.02 q
0.93±0.03 q
0.97±
0.01 q
14.41±
0.05efgh
14.79±0.03 ef
17.32±0.005 c
7.16± 7.46 bc1
-8.93
200(T2)
10.55
±0.05 op
11.26
±0.01lmno
13.59±
0.02 ghij
13.77±
0.02 fghi
14.06±
0.05 fgh
14.6±
0.003 efg
21.34±
0.003 a
14.17± 1.32 a
-3.60
(B3)
300(T3)
0.88±
0.02 q
0.92±
0.02 q
10.35±
0.05 op
10.95±
0.05 mnop
11.867±
0.03 klm
14.4±0.02 efgh
22.05±
0.003 a
10.2± 1.08 ab
-8.69

400(T4)
0.89±
0.03 q
0.93±
0.03 q
0.92±
0.01 q
0.94±
0.0003 q
10.32±
0.05 op
10.58±
0.03 op
22.29±
0.005 a
6.9± 1.79 bc
-8.69
Mean (B3)
3.29± 4.37a
3.49± 4.69 gh
6.45± 5.89 gh
6.66±
6.05 efgh
12.66± 1.74 efgh
13.6± 1.83 cde
20.5±
2.1  bcd
9.624
0.46
Interakti-on  (B3*T)
-0.02
1.70
0.55
0.49
2.41
2.15
-2.60
0.67
Mean
100(T1)
0.79±
0.04 g
0.84±
0.02 g
0.89±
0.06 g
0.92±
0.08 g
8.74±
6.07 def
9.18±
1.31 def
15.78±
1.87 bc
5.308
-6.68
Temperature pyrolysis
200(T2)
4.07±
1.86fg
1.36±
5.18fg
5.14±
1,3 fg
11.59±
1.65 cde
12.87±
0.98 cde
13.07±
1.55 cd
19.69±
1.44 ab
10.116
-6.86
(T)
300(T3)
0.85±
0.02 g
0.94±
0.02 g
11.02±
1.2 cde
11.08±
0.85 cde
11.65±
1.12 cde
13.2±
1.12 cd
21.15±
1.02  a
9.989
-8.13

400(T4)
0.88±
0.01 g
0.89±
0.02 g
0.9±
0.02 g
0.92±
0.03 g
4.07±
4.69fg
7.8±
5.26ef
19.49±
1.71 ab
5.002
-6.52
Interaktion (T)
0.49
0.54
-0.98
0.08
2.54
0.64
-2.10
Mean  Konsentration
1.65
1.76
4.49
6.13
9.34
10.83
18.95
7.592
(K)

Interaktion (B*T*K)

-1.24
-1.31
-1.32
-0.31
-2.89
-1.81
-1.38
Description: Different superscript letters in columns averaging showed significant difference (P <0.05)



Based on Table 4 shows the value of a negative interaction on the combination treatment differences in raw materials, pyrolysis temperature and differences in the concentration of liquid smoke to the diameter of the inhibition of Escerichia Coli bacteria. Results of a negative interaction means the three treatment factors together provide a response to the Diameter Power Inhibition (DDH) Escerichia Coli, but the opposite direction, or in other words the response given from three factors together against DDH Escerichia Coli weaker than the response performance in each factor. Results Inhibitory Power Diameter (DDH) Escerichia Coli in concentrations of liquid smoke treatment combination with pyrolysis temperature at different concentrations present in the raw material cinnamon on pyrolysis temperature of 400±10°C in liquid smoke concentration of 22.29 ppb ppb in 1500 was not significantly different with liquid smoke made from cinnamon to a temperature pyrolysis of 200 ± 10°C and 300 ±10°C and significantly different with the combination of other treatments, while the diameter of the inhibition of the smallest contained in the liquid smoke coconut shell at a temperature pyrolysis of 100±10°C in concentrations of liquid smoke 0 ppb (smokeless liquid) of 0.764 ml / ppb. The amount of inhibition in diameter liquid smoke cinnamon on pyrolysis temperature of 400 ± 10 ° C at a concentration of 1500 ppb suspected many of the components contained in the liquid smoke that has the ability to be a powerful antimicrobial.
In Table 4 also shows that the antibacterial activity decreases with decreasing concentration of liquid smoke, but at the lowest concentration of 10 ppb, liquid smoke still indicates activity. [35] adds that the solubility in the liquid smoke is strong, so that the liquid smoke can still diffuse into media experiment the growth of bacteria and chemical compounds on wood vinegar one phenol, so that a larger inhibition zone. [36] adds that the phenols contained in the liquid smoke is the main component that inhibits the growth of bacterial populations by extending the lag phase proportionally in the product, while the growth rate in the exponential phase remains unchanged except The concentration of phenol is very high. While phenol at low concentrations only adds to the cell membrane permeability, so that the cell metabolites will come out and inactivate bacterial enzyme. [37] stated at a concentration of 1%, phenol function as bacteriostatic (inhibit microbial growth), whereas at higher concentrations act as bactericidal (killing bacteria).
The regression equation combination of raw materials, different pyrolysis temperature at 0 ppb concentration of liquid smoke is y = 0.2453x + 0.0552; r² = 0.0996, liquid smoke concentration of 1 ppb y = 0.2592x + 0.0742; r² = 0.0974; 10 ppb concentration of liquid smoke 0.3579x + y = 2.1626; r² = 0.0577; liquid smoke concentration of 100 ppb;0.0642x + y = 5.7139; r² = 0.0018; liquid smoke concentration of 500 ppb 0.5655x + y = 5.7342;r² = 0.1502; 1000 ppb concentration of liquid smoke 0.3632x + y = 8.4759; r² = 0.0738; and 1500 ppb concentration of liquid smoke 0.4681x + y = 15 987; r² = 0.3517. Based on the regression equation suggests that the combination of raw materials to the pyrolysis temperature at different concentrations of liquid smoke show a weak relationship to the diameter of the inhibition of Escerichia Coli bacteria. with R2 respectively 0.096, 0.0974, 0.0577, 0.0018, 0.1502, 0.0738 and 0.3517. Relations combination of materials with different pyrolysis temperature at 1500 ppb concentration of liquid smoke showed the highest R2 value of 0.3517, although the correlation indicates a weak relationship. Usually antibacterial tests (inhibition zone) test performed on bacterial isolates. Diameter of inhibition zone is an area of bacterial sensitivity to a substance liquid smoke at different concentrations as indicated by the clear area around the liquid smoke added. The larger the diameter is formed, the greater the influence of liquid smoke given. Liquid smoke inhibition zone combination of raw materials with different temperature pyrolysis illustrate their different resistance response inhibition zone in this case using E coli is a Gram negative short rod-shaped having a length of about 2μm diameter of 0.7 μm, width 0, 4 to 0.7 μm and an anaerobic fakultati .e. coli colonies circular, convex, and smooth with a real edge Escerichia Coli [38].
Antibacterial test (inhibition zone) test performed on bacterial isolates. Diameter of inhibition zone is an area of bacterial sensitivity to a substance liquid smoke at different concentrations (0 ppb, 1 ppb, 10 ppb, 100 ppb, 500 ppb, 1000 ppb and 1500 ppb) as indicated by the area clear around the liquid smoke added , The larger the diameter is formed, the greater the influence of liquid smoke given. Liquid smoke inhibition zone combination of raw materials with different temperature pyrolysis illustrate their different resistance response. Inhibition zone in this case using E coli is a Gram-negative rod-shaped short which has a length of about 2 μm, 0.7 μm diameter, width of 0.4 to 0.7 μm and an anaerobic fakultatif. e. coli colonies circular, convex, and smooth the edges that real Escerichia Coli [39];[38].
The antimicrobial activity of liquid smoke is caused by phenol and acid components. [24] suggested that liquid smoke contains acid and its derivatives (formate, acetate, butyrate, propionate, and methyl ester), alcohol (methyl, ethyl, propyl, alkyl, and isobutyl alcohol), aldehydes (formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, furfural, and methyl furfural), hydrocarbons (Silene, kumene, and simene), ketones (acetone, methyl ethyl ketone, methyl propyl ketone, and ethyl propyl ketone), phenol, pyridine, and methyl pyridine. Phenols and acids are compounds that act as antimicrobial [25]; [26]; [27]; [28]; [29]; [30]; [31]; [32]. The phenol and its derivatives can be either bacteriostatic or bactericidal because it is able to inactivate enzymes essential, mengkoagulasi SH group and the NH group of proteins [33].
[34] explains that the mechanism of antimicrobial activity of phenol and its derivatives include reaction with cell membranes that causes increased permeability of cell membranes and results in loss of cell contents, inactivation of essential enzymes and the destruction or inactivation of functional genetic material. The higher the concentration of phenol will further precipitate the proteins cells, conversely the lower the concentration will further inhibit essential enzymes effectively.

CONCLUSION

1. Diameter Escerichia Coli bacteria inhibition was greatest on the interaction of raw materials cinnamon with pyrolysis temperature of 200±10°C of 14.176 mm / ppb and regression line showed weak correlation with r2 values of 0.0401.
2. Diameter Escerichia Coli bacteria inhibition was greatest on the interaction of raw materials cinnamon with liquid smoke concentration of 1500 ppb of 20,500 mm/ppb and the regression equation showed a strong relationship with R2 values of 0.9072 means that 90.72% diameter southwest Coli bacteria inhibition Escerichia affected by a combination treatment of the raw material cinnamon with a concentration of 1500 ppb.
3. Diameter Escerichia Coli bacteria inhibition largest concentration occurs in the interaction of liquid smoke 1 500 ppb at the pyrolysis temperature of 300±10°C of 21.151 mm / ppb and the regression equation showed a strong relationship with R2 values of 0.8567 means that 85.67% diameter southwest Coli bacteria inhibition Escerichia affected by a combination of liquid smoke treatment of 1500 ppb concentration at the pyrolysis temperature of 300±10°C.
4. Diameter Escerichia Coli bacteria inhibition largest on the interaction of raw materials cinnamon on pyrolysis temperature of 400±10°C in liquid smoke concentration of 22.29 ppb 1500 ppb and the regression equation showed a weak correlation with R2 values of 0.3517.




ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
I would like to thank General Directorate of Higher Education, Indonesia Republic Ministry of Education that has given competitive research grants according to national priorities, Bapak Rector of Ekasakti University, Chairman of LPPM Ekasakti University, Dean of Agriculture Faculty University Ekasakti, the lecturers and Team and laboratory staff who have helped these research activities.

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